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Dirty Business: Keeping Clean During the California Gold Rush

Updated: Jun 29, 2023


During the California Gold Rush of the mid-1800s, bathing was not a common practice among the miners. Many miners were too busy searching for gold to take the time to bathe, and the lack of clean water and privacy made it difficult to do so. Additionally, many miners were living in makeshift camps with limited resources, so personal hygiene was not a priority.


Miners during the California Gold Rush had limited options for bathing. Some would use nearby rivers or streams to wash themselves, but the water was often dirty and contaminated with chemicals used in the mining process. Some miners would dig shallow pools in the ground to bathe in, but these were also often contaminated with debris and chemicals. A few larger mining camps had public bathhouses, but they were not common and were often overcrowded and unsanitary.

Another method of cleaning would be using a cloth and a bucket of water to wipe down their body. Some might even have a change of clothes with them or wash their clothes in a nearby river or stream. Overall, bathing during the California Gold Rush was not a frequent or easy task, and many miners went long periods without bathing.

During the California Gold Rush, there were a few famous bathhouses that were built in the larger mining towns. Some examples include:

• The Pioneer Steam Baths in San Francisco: This was one of the first bathhouses in the city and was built in 1849. It offered private baths, steam rooms, and hot and cold water.

• The Excelsior Steam Baths in Sacramento: This bathhouse was built in 1853 and offered private baths, a barber shop, and a restaurant.

• The Union Steam Baths in Grass Valley: This was one of the most popular bathhouses in the area, and it was built in 1853. It offered private baths and a barber shop.

• The Eureka Steam Baths in Eureka: This bathhouse was built in 1856, and it offered private baths, a barber shop, and a restaurant.

These bathhouses were considered luxury facilities, and not all miners could afford to use them. Most miners would have to make do with the makeshift solutions of washing in rivers or digging pools.

It's also worth noting that barber shops were an important part of life in the Old West, and many of the men who came to California during the Gold Rush would have needed the services of a barber. Barbershops served as social hubs where people could gather, catch up on the latest news, and exchange information about the best places to find gold.



Located within the Marshall Gold Discovery State Historic Park there was a historical marker for the former location of Dukehart’s Barber Shop and Bathhouse. The luxury of a clean bath and this business that played a small part in the social and economic fabric of the area provided the inspiration for our new fragrance Dukehart.





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